The sykes picot agreement of 1916

The second round of discussions took place December 21 with the British now represented by Sir Mark Sykes, a leading expert on the East. The negotiations with the Arabs as to the boundaries of the Arab states shall be continued through the same channel as heretofore on behalf of the two powers.

There shall be freedom of transit for French goods through Haifa and by the British railway through the brown area, whether those goods are intended for or originate in the blue area, area aor area band there shall be no discrimination, direct or indirect, against french goods on any railway, or against french goods or ships at any port serving the areas The sykes picot agreement of 1916.

In a series of diplomatic exchanges over five weeks, the UK The sykes picot agreement of 1916 France both agreed, while putting forward their own claims, to an increased sphere of influence in Iran in the case of the UK and to an annex of Syria The sykes picot agreement of 1916 Palestine and Cilicia for France.

It is to be understood by both governments that this railway is to facilitate the connection of Baghdad with Haifa by rail, and it is further understood that, if the engineering difficulties and expense entailed by keeping this connecting line in the brown area only make the project unfeasible, that the French government shall be prepared to consider that the line in question may also traverse the Polgon Banias Keis Marib Salkhad tell Otsda Mesmie before reaching area b.

There are conflicting views as to whether or not France received anything in exchange. Picot, however, added that he was prepared "to propose to the French government to throw Mosul into the Arab pool, if we did so in the case of Bagdad". There shall be no interior customs barriers between any of the above mentioned areas.

That in area a France, and in area b Great Britain, shall alone supply advisers or foreign functionaries at the request of the Arab state or confederation of Arab states. The British stressed that the terms of the Anglo—French declaration had superseded the Sykes—Picot Agreement in order to justify fresh negotiations over the allocation of the territories of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Palestine.

That in area a France, and in area b great Britain, shall have priority of right of enterprise and local loans.

Although Lloyd George and others have suggested that nothing was given in return, according to Rutledge and others, Lloyd George promised at least one or even all of, support for French claims on the Ruhr, that when oil production in Mosul began, France would receive a share and that Sykes—Picot obligation would be maintained as regards Syria.

That Haifa shall be a free port as regards the trade of France, her dominions and protectorates, and there shall be no discrimination in port charges or facilities as regards French shipping and French goods.

Picot represented a small group determined to secure control of Syria for France; for his part, Sykes raised British demands to balance out influence in the region. Finally, at the end of April, McMahon was advised of the terms of Sykes-Picot and he and Grey agreed that these would not be disclosed to the Arabs.

The British and French Governments, as the protectors of the Arab State, shall agree that they will not themselves acquire and will not consent to a third Power acquiring territorial possessions in the Arabian peninsula, nor consent to a third Power installing a naval base either on the east coast, or on the islands, of the Red Sea.

Russia was also privy to the discussions. Clemenceau, replying in respect of the Aide Memoire, refused to move on Syria and said that the matter should be left for the French to handle directly with Faisal.

That great Britain be accorded 1 the ports of Haifa and acre, 2 guarantee of a given supply of water from the Tigres and Euphrates in area a for area b. Conflicting promises and consequences[ edit ] Main article: That in the blue area France, and in the red area Great Britain, shall be allowed to establish such direct or indirect administration or control as they desire and as they may think fit to arrange with the Arab state or confederation of Arab states.

Faisal arrived Paris on 20 October and eventually on 6 January Faisal accepted a French mandate "for the whole of Syria", while France in return consented "to the formation of an Arab state that included Damascus, Homs, Hama and Aleppo, and was to be administered by the Emir with the assistance of French advisers" acknowledged "the right of Syrians to unite to govern themselves as an independent nation".

At this point Grey was faced with competing claims from the French and from Hussein and the day before had sent a telegram to Cairo telling the High Commissioner to be as vague as possible in his next letter to the Sharif when discussing the northwestern, Syrian, corner of the territory Husein claimed and left McMahon with "discretion in the matter as it is urgent and there is not time to discuss an exact formula", adding, "If something more precise than this is required you can give it.

By its terms, Russia would annex the Ottoman capital of Constantinople and retain control of the Dardanelles the crucially important strait connecting the Black Sea with the Mediterranean and the Gallipoli peninsula, the target of a major Allied military invasion begun in April While accepting the withdrawal, Clemenceau continued to insist on the Sykes—Picot agreement as being the basis for all discussions.

If our support of King Hussein and the other Arabian leaders of less distinguished origin and prestige means anything it means that we are prepared to recognize the full sovereign independence of the Arabs of Arabia and Syria.

Pre-State Israel: The Sykes-Picot Agreement

A Twice Promised Land? Lloyd George referred to it as an "egregious" and a "foolish" document. Sykes, Two Studies in Virtueindex; H.

The Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916

The British also became concerned about the Berlin-Baghdad Railway. Copies of these notes will be communicated to your Excellency as soon as exchanged. The customs duties leviable on goods destined for the interior shall be collected at the port of entry and handed over to the administration of the area of destination.

Lloyd George explained that he was "in the position of a man who had inherited two sets of engagements, those to King Hussein and those to the French", Faisal noting that the arrangement "seemed to be based on the agreement between the British and the French".

That France and Great Britain are prepared to recognize and protect an independent Arab states or a confederation of Arab states a and b marked on the annexed map, under the suzerainty of an Arab chief. Although the French had scaled back their demands to some extent, the British also claimed to want to include Lebanon in the future Arab State and this meeting also ended at an impasse.

The Sykes-Picot Agreement provided for British domination, both through outright annexation and through spheres of influence, in Iraq south of MosulTransjordan, and certain emirates of the Arabian peninsula and French domination in Lebanon, Syria, northern Iraq, and southeastern Anatolia.

The agreement largely neglected to allow for the future growth of Arab nationalism, which at that same moment the British government and military were working to use to their advantage against the Turks.

On 3 Januaryan initialled memorandum was forwarded to the Foreign Office and after having been circulated for comments, [a] An interdepartmental conference was convened by Nicolson on 21 January.

Picot was informed and 5 days later Cambon told Nicolson that "the French government were in accord with the proposals concerning the Arab question".The Sykes-Picot Agreement (officially the Asia Minor Agreement) was a secret agreement reached during World War I between the British and French governments pertaining to the partition of the Ottoman Empire among the Allied Powers.

Russia was also privy to the discussions. On May 19,representatives of Great Britain and France secretly reach an accord, known as the Sykes-Picot agreement, by which most of the Arab lands under the rule of the Ottoman Empire are. The Sykes-Picot Agreement was a secret agreement which only became known to the Arabs in late when it was found by the Bolsheviks in the Tsar’s papers.

Sykes-Picot Agreement, also called Asia Minor Agreement, (May ), secret convention made during World War I between Great Britain and France, with the assent of imperial Russia, for the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire.

The Sykes–Picot Agreement / ˈ s aɪ k s p i ˈ k oʊ /, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented. WWI Document Archive > Official Papers > Sykes-Picot Agreement.

15 & 16 May, 1. Sir Edward Grey to Paul Cambon, 15 May I shall have the honour to reply fully in a further note to your Excellency's note of the 9th instant, relative to the creation of an Arab State, but I should meanwhile be grateful if your Excellency could assure me.

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The sykes picot agreement of 1916
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